Translating Organizational Research Scales into a Different Language

Topic(s): Uncategorized
Publication: Journal of Applied Psychology (2022)
Article: Back-Translation Practices in Organizational Research: Avoiding Loss in Translation
Authors: A.C. Klotz, B.W. Swider, S.H. Kwon
Reviewed by: Katherine Facteau

The field of organizational psychology is increasingly spanning across different countries, cultures, and languages. As such, researchers engaging in cross-cultural research must often translate scales into a different language. Scales are simply a group of items that measure a psychological concept, and they must be developed meticulously by researchers or other experts.

One popular method of translation is called back-translation, where a bilingual person translates the scale into the new language, and another person translates it back to the original language to see how the scales compare. However, these translated scales are not always equivalent, meaning they don’t always have the same meaning across languages. This ultimately impacts the conclusions researchers can draw from cross-cultural studies. New research (Klotz et al., 2022) examines decades of scale translation practices and provides important recommendations for future research.


The researchers reviewed 333 articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology from 1997-2021 that used scale translation. They aimed to answer two primary questions: (1) how frequently do researchers report back-translation practices, and (2) how frequently do they report techniques and evidence of measurement equivalence?

The researchers found that 91% of articles reported using back-translation practices. However, the details surrounding the methods used were often unclear or underreported. Only 16% of articles included pretesting of scales (e.g., qualitative or quantitative examination of the scale before administering it) or had multiple raters. Even fewer (4%) reported quantitative results about scale equivalence. They also found that since 1997, researchers have become more likely to report using back-translation; however, the details being reported have decreased.


The researchers provided recommendations to improve back-translation practices in future research. First, authors should report the language used by participants and whether scale translations were used. They should also report who the translators were (e.g., number of translators and their qualifications), and any issues that arose during the translation process. Third, authors should pretest their scales by having a bilingual person qualitatively review them or use quantitative methods to determine the degree of equivalence between scales. Finally, authors should include both versions of the scale in the article when possible. Ultimately, these suggestions will help improve the transparency and rigor of scale translation practices.


Klotz, A. C., Swider, B. W., & Kwon, S. H. (2023). Back-translation practices in organizational research: Avoiding loss in translation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 108(5), 699–727.

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