The Pitfalls of Inconsistent Leader Behavior

employees shaking hands
Topic(s): leadership, personality, wellness
Publication: Journal of Applied Psychology
Article: Supervisor Support: Does Supervisor Support Buffer or Exacerbate the Adverse Effects of Supervisor Undermining?
Authors: I. Nahum-Shani, S. Lim, M.M. Henderson, A.D. Vinokur
Reviewed by: Ben Sher

What are the effects of inconsistent leader behavior? For example, a manager may behave in a way that makes it difficult for his or her employees to do their jobs, perhaps by being overly critical or short-tempered. This is called supervisor undermining, which can negatively impact employee health and well-being. After a good night’s sleep, the boss feels bad about the inappropriate behavior and poor management, and tries to make it up for it by providing extra assistance at a later time.

New research (Nahum-Shani, Lim, Henderson, & Vinokur, 2014) has found two situations in which this kind of inconsistent leader behavior can work well, and two others in which this approach can backfire and make things even worse.


When supervisors undermine their employees and then try to make up for it by being extra helpful, the inconsistent behavior creates uncertainty for the employees.

Three bad things can happen as a result. First, employees will lack a coherent picture of how well they are doing at their job, which can be confusing or frustrating. Second, employees will lose a sense of control over their work environment. And third, employees will have doubts about the quality of their relationship with their supervisor.

But the current study shows that if the employees can overcome these three obstacles, the supervisor’s strategy can actually work.


The researchers found that two types of employees can overcome the challenges associated with supervisor inconsistency: Those with high self-esteem and those who perceive a high “quality of work life.” High quality work life occurs when the resources, relationships, and outcomes of work satisfy the employee’s needs.

The study found that when high self-esteem and high quality of work life employees were exposed to inconsistent leader behavior, they used coping skills to mitigate its harmful effects. When supervisors tried to rectify poor behavior with considerate behavior, these employees benefited from the turnaround, experiencing better health and fewer job strains.

On the other hand, employees who had low self-esteem or experienced poor quality of work life didn’t have the coping skills to deal with inconsistent leader behavior. With this group, bosses who tried to rectify poor behavior with considerate behavior actually created more problems by being inconsistent. These employees experienced worse health and more job strains.


Oftentimes managers are trained to provide careful attention and consideration to their employees, especially when they know they have previously messed up. But this study warns against this one-size-fits-all approach, suggesting the strategy only works if employees can handle the negative effects of inconsistent supervision. If they can’t handle it, managers are only making things worse.

New research like this helps I-O psychologists determine how to maximize the benefits to all employees by recognizing that employees are unique and don’t all respond the same way.

Nahum-Shani, I., Henderson, M. M., Lim, S., & Vinokur, A. D. (2014). Supervisor Support: Does Supervisor Support Buffer or Exacerbate the Adverse Effects of Supervisor Undermining? Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(3), 484-503.