Organizational Citizenship Behavior.500

What Does Job Security Have to Do With Organizational Citizenship Behavior?

Researchers have been trying to figure out if job security and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) are related. Job security is something we’ve probably all thought of, and OCB refers to workplace behavior that goes above and beyond the call of duty and helps the organization, like helping a co-worker or taking on extra responsibilities without extra compensation. Do people who have more job security perform more or less OCB? Some researchers have found that they perform more OCB, some have found that they perform less OCB, and some have found that it doesn’t matter either way. So who is right?


Can your personality affect how well you adapt to changes in the workplace?

The business world is always evolving, from technology to everyday work requirements. So being able to adapt to changes in the workplace quickly is incredibly valuable for employers.

Evolutionary theory has put forward certain personality traits as better predictors of effective adaptation in various areas of our lives. But the difficulty in evolving within the organizational environment lies in the fact that adaptation in a work setting isn’t about adjusting to a stable environment, but to one that is constantly changing.


Repairing Working Relationships after an Organizational Crisis

We’ve all had those moments of sheer and utter panic: you completely forgot about that client meeting in twenty minutes; you made a monumental error on a deliverable you just sent over; or that instant message about how much you hate your job somehow found its way onto your boss’s computer screen. Ahhhh! Well, organizations enter a similar type of “crisis mode” when the unexpected happens, or when threatened by high-impact events that may have seemed unlikely to occur, but now have.


Keeping Your Business Model Afloat Before It Goes Under Water

At some point in our lives we’ve all had that nagging worry of being replaced or displaced by someone younger, smarter, better looking, or more talented. Well, navigating the business world is much the same. You’ve got to be vigilant and constantly on the lookout for new products or services that come to market and threaten to steal your client base.


Give ’em the One-Two Punch!

Topic: Business Strategy, Change Management
Publication: Harvard Business Review (DEC 2012)
Article: Two Routes to Resilience
Authors: Clark Gilbert, Matthew Eyring and Richard N. Foster
Reviewed By: Susan Rosengarten

PR_009-_SI_-_14_03_12-390Strategists at every organization worry about keeping their companies’ products and services relevant for the twenty first century. With new electronics brought to market before you can say the word “i-phone,” its no wonder companies are finding it harder to compete and maintain market share, yet alone dominate their industries. What’s the secret to not just staying afloat, but flourishing in this economy? Well, Gilbert, Eyring and Foster have the answer for you in their article “Two Routes to Resilience.”


Take the Lead!

Topic: Business Strategy, Change Management, Leadership
Publication: Harvard Business Review (JAN/FEB 2013)
Article: Strategic Leadership: The Essential Skills
Authors: Paul J. H. Schoemaker, Steve Krupp, and Samantha Howland
Reviewed By: Susan Rosengarten

imagery_09_11_08_000051Whether you set your sites on becoming CEO or simply want to take your lemonade stand to the next level, there are a couple of essential skills you’ll need to have. According to Schoemaker, Krupp and Howland, mastery of these six skills will help you navigate the murky waters of the 21st century and become a strategic leader in your own right.


Managing Change for the Twenty-First Century

Topic: Business Strategy, Change Management
Publication: Harvard Business Review (NOV 2012)
Article: Accelerate!
Author: John P. Kotter
Reviewed By: Susan Rosengarten

Organizations are finding it increasingly difficult to keep up with the rapid pace of consumer, industry and worldwide change. Technological advancements as well as cross-cultural integrations have allowed for tremendous economic opportunities. At the same time though, the stakes are much higher, and the threats more real. Today’s leaders feel progressively more pressure to carefully consider how their investments in new ventures and R&D to remain competitive in changing markets will impact stakeholders’ perceptions and affect their bottom line.


Organizational Inducements and Resilience: Oft Ignored, but Effective Resources for Building Commitment and Support for Change

Topic:  Change Management
Publication:  Academy of Management Journal
Article:  Resources for change:  The relationships of organizational inducements and psychological resilience to employees’ attitudes and behaviors toward organizational change
Authors:  J. Shin, M.S. Taylor, M. Seo
Reviewed by:  Kecia Bingham

Although change is common among organizations, successful organizational change is far from typical.  Why the low rate of success, you ask?  Well there are likely a number of contributing factors, but research increasingly cites the importance of the often ignored, but invaluable resource called employees—specifically employee attitudes and behavioral reactions to change.  A study by Shin and colleagues extends previous research on organizational change by highlighting organizational inducements (i.e., valued tangible and intangible outcomes employee receive in exchange for contributing to organizational performance) and psychological resilience (i.e., a trait-like ability to recover from adversity and adapt to shifting demands) as resources that can be developed over time before organizational change begins, and examines the mechanism by which these resources affect employees’ commitment to change and change behaviors (e.g., support for change and turnover).


Change Agents Beware: Does Your Social Network Help or Hinder Change Initiatives? (Human Resource Management)

Topic:  Change Management
Publication:  Academy of Management (APR 2012)
Article:  Change agents, networks, and institutions:  A contingency theory of organizational change
Authors:  J. Battilana, T. Casciaro
Reviewed by:  Kecia Bingham

Not all change initiatives are created equal.  Divergent organizational changes (changes that diverge from the institutional status quo) are especially difficult to implement since they require change agents to persuade organization members to not only adopt new practices, but break with institutional norms.  The authors of this study sought to answer what factors increase the likelihood that a change agent:  1) will initiate a divergent change initiative, and 2) will persuade other organization members to adopt that change.


My Ideas are an Extension of Me: Why Individuals Embrace or Resist Feedback (IO Psychology)

Topic:  Decision Making, Change Management
Publication:  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (MAY 2012)
Article:  Blind in one eye:  How psychological ownership of ideas affects the types of suggestions people adopt
Authors:  M. Baer, G. Brown
Reviewed by:  Kecia Bingham

Remember that time your polite suggestion to your loving partner on how he/she could pare down their “funny story” was met with an exaggerated eye roll? Or perhaps there was a time you suggested to your partner that he/she add a certain ingredient to their signature recipe and to your surprise they did.  This study sought to understand why people at times seem open to feedback, while at other times seem to resist it.  The authors proposed that psychological ownership (feeling a material or non-material object, such as an idea, is yours and is part of your extended self) and the nature of the change attempt determines how people respond to suggestions for change.


The Human Side of Organizational Change (IO Psychology)

 Topic: Change Management, Leadership
Publication: Personnel Psychology (2012)
Article: The Role of Affect and Leadership during Organizational Change
Authors: M.-G. Seo, M. S. Taylor, N. S. Hill, X. Zhang, P. E. Tesluk, N. M. Lorinkova
Reviewed By: Lauren A. Wood

Organizational change initiatives have become increasingly commonplace in the modern workplace. Despite their increased prevalence, typically, change efforts fail to achieve the organization’s desired results. Although multiple reasons for change failure have been identified, researchers are increasingly taking notice of the role that the “human element” plays in the change process.


How leaders may affect followers’ resistance to change (IO Psychology)

Topic: Leadership, Change Management
Publication: Personnel Psychology (AUTUMN 2011)
Article: Leadership and employees’ reactions to change: The role of leaders’ personal attributes and transformational leadership style Authors: Oreg, S., & Berson, Y.
Reviewed by: Alexandra Rechlin

Does your organization go through change? I’d be willing to bet that it does, so you may be interested in what kind of impact leaders have on their followers’ intentions to resist organizational change. The authors of this study investigated how the traits, values, and behaviors of leaders explain their followers’ resistance intentions.


Building successful and sustainable HR interventions

Topic: Change Management, Strategic HR
Publication: Journal of Business and Psychology (JUN 2011)
Article: HR interventions that go viral
Authors: Yost, P. R., McLellan, J. R., Ecker, D. L., Chang, G. C., Hereford, J. M., Roenicke, C. C., Town, J. B., & Winberg, Y. L.
Reviewed by: Alexandra Rechlin

Why do some HR interventions fail while others succeed? In this article, Yost et al. (2011) attempt to answer that question by using three different methods: a literature review, a case study, and interviews with senior I/O and HR professionals. The authors provided a case study of a successful HR intervention. They noted five important characteristics of the intervention:


Getting Emotional at Work

Topic: Stress, Change Management
Publication: Journal of Organizational Behavior (MAY 2011)
Article: Stability, change, and the stability of change in daily workplace affect
Authors: Beal, D. J., Ghandour, L.
Reviewed by: Larry Martinez

Have you ever noticed how some people are just more emotionally volatile than others?  A coworker that comes to work happy as a clam one day and down in the dumps the next?  Researchers call this affect spin, which refers to an individual characteristic that reflects the extent to which people experience more than one emotion over time.  For example, in the picture above, each point represents one’s levels of positive and negative affect of any particular day (so four days in total).  So, since the points fall all on different parts of the circumplex, the figure represents someone with high affect spin, or several varying emotions on different days.  Beal and Ghandour (2001) examined this concept with positive and negative emotions and task motivation in the midst of a major natural disaster: Hurricane Ike.


Practical advice for designing a 360-degree feedback process

Topic: Feedback, Change Management
Publication: Journal of Business and Psychology (MAY 2011)
Article: When does 360-degree feedback create behavior change? And how would we know it when it does?
Authors: Bracken, D. W., Rose, D. S.
Reviewed by: Alexandra Rechlin

Have you ever participated in a 360-degree feedback process that seemed pointless and didn’t appear to change anything at all? If so, you’re not alone. However, a 360-degree feedback process, when well designed, has the potential for lasting behavioral change. This article discusses critical design factors of a 360-degree feedback process used to create sustainable behavioral and organizational change. The authors also provide questions for future research and practical advice for making the process successful. Four critical design factors are discussed: relevant content, credible data, accountability, and census (organizationwide) participation.


Organizational Change: The Good, the Bad, the Ambivalent

Topic: Change Management, Human Resources
Publication: Journal of Applied Psychology (MAR 2011)
Article: Ambivalence Toward Imposed Change: The Conflict Between Dispositional Resistance to Change and the Orientation Toward the Change Agent
Authors: S. Oreg, N. Sverdlik
Reviewed By: Lauren A. Wood

Change management has become a buzz word of business leaders and academics alike, and the reason is simple: organizations are undergoing changes at a faster rate today than ever before. Despite these increases in change frequency and a growing body of research dedicated to understanding organizational initiatives, the vast majority of planned organizational changes still fail. But, why? According to Oreg and Sverdlik, the answer is a little complicated.


Critical Leadership Competencies for Every Manager, Regardless of Culture

Topic: Leadership
Publication: Journal of Business and Psychology (MAR 2011)
Article: A Convergence/Divergence Perspective of Leadership Competencies Managers Believe are Most Important for Success in Organizations: A Cross-Cultural Multilevel Analysis of 40 Countries
Authors: W.A. Gentry, T.E. Sparks
Reviewed By: Rebecca Eckart

With an increasing amount of employees working in global and multinational environments, it is critical for organizations to understand and develop the competencies deemed most important for success. In a recent study, Gentry and Sparks (2011) investigated if four leadership competencies (Resourcefulness, Change Management, Building and Mending Relationships, and Balancing Personal Life and Work) are valued as important for managerial success across cultures or just in some countries. 


Trading Voice for Service: The Impact of Perceived Voice on Organizational Commitment During Periods of Change

Topic: Change Management, Organizational Commitment, Potential, Trust
Publication: Human Resource Management (JAN 2011)
Article: The influence of perceived employee voice on organizational commitment: An exchange perspective
Authors: E. Farndale, J. Van Ruiten, C. Kelliher, and V. Hope-Hailey
Reviewed By: Allison B. Siminovsky

Everyone likes to feel important on occasion, whether through achieving a major goal or being recognized for an accomplishment.  The workplace is no exception to this rule, as employees like to feel as though their decisions impact the actions their organizations take.  During major corporate change, leadership and culture can be shaken up dramatically and as a result, previous levels of perceived employee impact (“I make a difference”) might not remain intact.  What benefits does an organization reap if employees feel they have a voice, and how is this impacted through the change process?  This article attempts to answer these questions.


Who is More Likely to Change Careers?

Topic: Personality
Publication: Journal of Vocational Behavior (2011)
Article:A longitudinal study of the determinants and outcomes of career change.
Authors: S. A. Carless & J. L. Arnup
Reviewed by: Charleen Maher

It’s no secret that we’re currently experiencing some rough economic times. Consequently, the job market is unstable and people are seeking additional education and training in an effort to prepare for career changes.  A career change is defined as moving to a different occupation or profession and often requires costly additional training and results in lost time and income. So what leads an individual down the path of a new career and what happens after a career change has occurred?


What the ambivalent can teach us about change

Topic: Change Management
Publication: Journal of Applied Psychology
Article: Ambivalence toward imposed change: The conflict between dispositional resistance to change and the orientation toward the change agent (NOV 2010)
Authors:  Shaul Oreg and Noga Sverdlik
Reviewed By: Bobby Bullock

As a business grows or shrinks, evolves or adjusts, one thing is always certain – change! Unfortunately, organizational change can be one of the most difficult things to deal with firsthand.  Even within one individual employee, feelings towards change can run the gambit from fierce resistance to strong support.  To address the issue of conflicting feelings towards change, Oreg and Sverdlik (2010) sought determine employees’ feelings towards (1) the concept of change and (2) how the change agent influences their reactions to imposed organizational change. 


The Employee Network: to Keep or Not to Keep Under the Radar

Topic: Organizational PerformanceChange Management
Publication: Harvard Business Review (MAR 2010)
Article: Harnessing your staff’s informal networks
Authors: R. McDermott, D. Archibald
Reviewed by: Liz Brashier

Communities of practice are voluntary, informal employee networks where experts
can share knowledge and information, and it’s in these groups that employees form innovative solutions to real organizational problems. While in the past, these informal networks have succeeded on their own, this is no longer the case; these networks function best when they have management on board. McDermott and Archibald (2010) examine the status of communities of practice at companies including Pfizer, Fluor, and Conoco Phillips, and have concrete directions for guiding the once under-the-radar employee network.


Ashes, Ashes, Organizations All Fall Down!

Topic: Change Management, Organizational Reputation
Publication: Academy of Management Journal (DEC 2008)
Article: Good fences make good neighbors: A longitudinal analysis of an industry self-regulatory institution
Author: M.L. Barnett, A.A. King
Reviewed By: Katie Bachman

In these “interesting” economic times, it seems like every company is struggling to overcome challenges within their organizations. Bad news: You need to be worried about what your competitors struggle with too! In a recent article in the Academy of Management Journal, Barnett and King describe the influence of reputational spillover on organizations. The nuts and bolts of their argument is that a) consumers have a hard time telling similar companies apart and b) when something goes wrong in one company, it can taint others by association. For example, if you think back to the months after 9/11, Americans didn’t just stop flying on United Airlines, they stopped flying on airplanes. Tragedies that garner negative publicity are likely to hurt many companies within their industry.


How Downsizing Can Damage Your Rep

Topic: Change Management, Off The Wall
Publication: The Academy of Management Journal
Article: Character, conformity, or the bottom line? How and why downsizing affected corporate reputation.
Author: E.G. Love, M. Kraatz
Featured by: Benjamin Granger

In a recent study, Love and Kraatz (2009) attempted to identify how corporate downsizing might affect a firm’s reputation Prior to presenting the results of their study, Love and Kraatz outlined three broad perspectives, each offering predictions for how and why organizations’ reputations might change.  The authors then tested each perspective using a sample of Fortune 100 companies during the years of 1985-1994.  Specifically, Love and Kraatz used rankings of Fortune’s “Most Admired Companies” (annual survey of several thousand analysts and executives) as an indication of organizational reputation.


Curing the Organizational Restructuring Blues

Topic: Change Management, Organizational Development
Publication: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
Article: Employee identification before and after an internal merger: A longitudinal analysis. Author: J. Bartels, J. Pruyn, S. DeJong
Featured by: Benjamin Granger

One employee factor crucial to the success of organizational change is the extent to which employees identify (align themselves) with their organizations prior to the restructuring.  But, employees can identify with the organization at different levels.  For example, employees can identify with the organization as a whole, with their particular department or division, or even their work group.


Bringing Back the Cynics!

Topic: Change Management, Job Attitudes
Publication: Human Resource Management
Article: Organizational change cynicism: the role of employee involvement.
Author: M. Brown, C. Cregan
Featured by: Benjamin Granger

Organizational cynicism involves a negative attitude on the part of an employee toward his/her  organization. It’s the belief or feeling that one’s organization has sacrificed the basic principles of honesty and fairness to further the self-interest of organizational leaders (CEOs taking $20,000 flights on private jets while begging congress for bailout…hmm…).


Venture Capital…and I/O?

Topic: Change, Organizational Development, Organizational Performance
Publication: Administrative Science Quarterly
Article: Bringing the context back in: Settings and the search for syndicate partners in venture capital investment networks.
Blogger: Rob Stilson

All right, so let me get the “summary” part of this out of the way first. A recent study by Sorenson and Stuart (2008) presented an elaborate and, at times, complicated peek into the mechanisms through which venture capital firms form syndicates with other venture capital firms when investing in start-up companies. Based on some person-level theories of relationship building, the specific aim of the  researchers was to describe how characteristics of the investment situation (which included variables such as how “fashionable” the targeted industry was at the time of investment, the maturity of the target company, the size of the investment syndicate, and the density of relationships among members of the syndicate) influenced the likelihood of syndicate formation across “social distance” (defined as the similarity of investment histories between two firms and previous experience with each other, among other things). Breaking down the main findings, it was reported that venture capital firms were more likely to create distant ties with other firms when:


If you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours – unless your hands are covered in thorns.

Topic: Change Management, Job Attitudes, Organizational Performance
Publication: Journal of Business Research
Article:  Exploring civic virtue and turnover intention during organizational changes. 
Blogger: LitDigger

If you buy me a coffee, I’ll tell you what I know. If you cover my shift, I’ll cover yours next week.  If you buy me dinner, in turn I will . . . never mind, you get the picture.Reciprocity is a critical element to any social relationship.  The same holds true for employee-employer relationships.