What Makes People Succeed on Virtual Teams?

Does virtual teamwork require a different set of competencies from those needed in traditional teamwork? Researchers found that there are some knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that are more important in virtual teams than traditional teams. This study provides insight into the competencies needed to be a more effective team player in a virtual setting.

How Should I Measure That?

Topic: Selection, Assessment
Publication: Human Performance (2009)
Article: Not much more than g? An examination of the impact of intelligence on NFL performance
Authors: B.D. Lyons, B.J. Hoffman, & J.W. Michel
Reviewed By: Scott Charles Sitrin, M.A.

In most work, intelligence is a key a predictor of job performance.  But what about when your job involves physically assaulting your opponent and not letting him say “uncle” until you have successfully moved a pigskin 100 yards into his end zone?  For a football player, does intelligence predict performance?  Do you, as an owner of a National Football team, select the genius in the tweed jacket with an Ivy League smile?

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Waging WARS on Workplace Arrogance

Topic: Performance, Personality, Self Efficacy
Publication: Human Performance
Article: Acting superior but actually inferior?: Correlates and consequences of workplace arrogance
Authors: R.E. Johnson, S.B. Silverman, A. Shyamsunder, H-Y Swee, O.B. Rodopman, E. Cho, and J. Bauer
Reviewed By: Benjamin Granger 

It’s probably safe to say that we’ve all had to work with an arrogant coworker or supervisor at one time in our careers.  It’s also probably safe to say that these run-ins have been unpleasant and disruptive to our work.  Yet, while we arm-chair our theories about the effects of arrogance in the workplace, very little research is available to confirm (or disconfirm) our assumptions and anecdotal evidence.  That is, surprisingly little is known about the consequences of workplace arrogance and its relationship with job performance.

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To Give Is To Get In Work Teams

Topic: Goals, Performance, Teams
Publication: Human Performance
Article: What you do for your team comesback to you: A cross-level investigation of individual goal specification,team-goal clarity, and individual performance
Authors: S. Sonnentag and J. Volmer
Reviewed By: Benjamin Granger

Much of today’s work is done by workteams. Even if an employee’s work is self-contained, it is often combined with the work of other team members. Cleary then, individual performance is vital for determining the team’s level of overall performance. But how do employees’ inputs into the team impact their own performance?

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When Performance Goals are a Must

Topic: Feedback, Goals, Performance
Publication: Human Performance
Article: Achievement goals, feedback, and task performance
Authors: A.M. Cianci, J.M. Schaubroeck, and G.A. McGill
Reviewed By: Benjamin Granger

Although performance feedback is vital to effective job performance, employees can react differently to the same feedback. For example, while some employees give up in the face of negative feedback about their performance, others persevere and actually improve their performance over time. Alternatively, when presented with positive feedback, some employees coast while others maintain their high levels of performance.  Cianci et al. recently showed that the type of goals that are set for employees help explain how they react to positive and negative performance feedback.

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What Makes a “Good Faker”? And Do We Want Them?

Topic: FakingPersonality Assessment
Publication: Human PerformanceArticle: Individual differences in the ability to fake on personality measures.
Author: P.H. Raymark, T.L. Tafero
Featured by: Benjamin Granger

One common criticism of personality testing is its susceptibility to faking. Faking (i.e., response distortion) occurs when job applicants intentionally misrepresent themselves (e.g., respond in ways that present themselves as more attractive job candidates).

In a recent study, Raymark and Tafero (2009) investigated the role of several individual differences thought to explain why certain job applicants are more able to fake on personality measures than others. Specifically, the authors investigated:

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Faded Feedback – Just a Fad?

Topic: Feedback, Training
Publication: Human Performance
Article: Faded versus increasing feedback, task variability trajectories, and transfer of training.
Author: J.S. Goodman, R.E. Wood
Featured by: Benjamin Granger

In training situations, immediate, specific, and frequent feedback to the learner is often prescribed  by the experts. However, there is evidence that this “high guidance” feedback may ultimately impair long-term transfer (the ability to transfer knowledge gained in training to the  workplace) and individual performance on the job. One solution that has been presented in the literature to address this issue is known as faded  feedback. Faded feedback involves high-level guidance at first, with a gradual reduction in feedback and guidance as trainees move through the training course.

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What to do about the Failure-Focused Employee

Topic: Job Performance, Motivation
Publication: Human Performance
Article: Failure avoidance motivation in a goal-setting situation.
Author: S.R. Heimerdinger, V.B. Hinsz
Featured by: Benjamin Granger

Although it is known that employees who set specific and difficult goals tend to outperform those who set broad and relatively easy goals, different employees have differing motivational mindsets when they set their goals. Some employees are motivated to learn and master skills. Others are motivated to demonstrate their competence to others. (“Those darn showoffs!”) Interestingly, though, some employees  are motivated, not by accomplishments, but to simply avoid failing. In other words, when some employees set personal goals, they are focused on NOT FAILING as opposed to succeeding (e.g., “My goal is to NOT completely bomb this presentation!”).

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Taking a Hard Line on Employee Lateness Can Pay Off!

Topic: Culture, Job AttitudesJob Performance
Publication: Human Performance
Article:  Employee lateness behavior: the role of lateness climate and individuals lateness attitude.  
Blogger: Benjamin Granger

Many organizations go to great lengths to curtail employee lateness (showing up tardy for work) and for good reason – it can cost organizations billions of dollars in productivity a year.

In order to better understand why lateness occurs, Elicker, Foust, O’Malley, and Levy (2008) investigated (1) organizations’ lateness climates and (2) employee attitudes about lateness as joint predictors of actually showing up late for work.

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Is interrater correlation really a proper measurement of reliability?

Topic: Measurement, Research Methodology, Statistics
Publication: Human Performance
Article: Exploring the relationship between interrater correlations and validity of peer ratings
Blogger: Rob Stilson

Interrater reliability (still with me?, Ok good) is often used as the main reliability estimate for the correction of validity coefficients when the criterion is job performance. Issues arise with this practice when one considers that the errors present between raters may not be random, but due to bias, while agreement between raters may also stem from bias instead of actual consistency. In this study, the authors’ main goal was to explore the relationship between interrater correlations and validity and also to explore the relationship between the number of raters and validity.

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Where leaving it to Beaver meets the bottom line

Topic: Citizenship BehaviorJob Performance
Publication: Human Performance
Article: Test of Motowidlo et al.’s (1997) theory of individual differences in task and contextual performance.
Blogger: James Grand

A helpful hand here or a thoughtful “hi-how-are-ya” might be more valuable than we think. Psychologists are starting to realize that such dispositional characteristics can be meaningful predictors of on-the-job performance. Nearly 10 years ago, Motowidlo, Borman and Schmit proposed that performance at work was more than just the number of pizzas one delivers in 30 minutes or less or any other similar indicators of taskwork proficiency.

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Does Narcissism Lead to Ineffective Leadership? Depends on the Rater

Topic: Job PerformanceLeadership, Personality
Publication: Human Performance
Article: Narcissism in Organizations: A multisource appraisal reflects different perspectives.
Blogger: Benjamin Granger

Organizational researchers have identified a personality trait that consistently relates to immoral and ineffective leadership: narcissism. Narcissism involves an exaggerated sense of self-worth (I’m better than everyone else!), a need for admiration and power (Everyone should look up to me!), and a tendency to exploit others (They don’t even know I’m using them, HAHAHA). It’s not difficult to see how such a leader would fail to manage others effectively.

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Interviewing: When to hold ’em…When to fold ’em

Topic: Assesment, Interviewing
Publication: Human Performance (2008)
ArticleTransparency in structured interviews: consequences for construct and criterion-related validity
Authors:  U. C. Klehe, C. J. König, G. M. Richter, M. Kleinmann, & K. G. Melchers
Reviewed by: Benjamin Granger

J0422564While holding your cards close to the vest may be key for your next game of Texas Hold ‘em…, you might want to reconsider your approach when sitting across the table from a potential new hire.

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